Nepal adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2011 for the period 2011-2016. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, through a participatory approach that included a number of government agencies, development partners, donor organizations, international non-governmental organizations, and civil society. The NAP is contextualized within a broader set of government policies and initiatives that seek to mainstream gender and implement the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda in Nepal. The NAP identifies four overarching goals, aligned with the primary pillars of UNSCR 1325: participation; protection and prevention; promotion; relief and recovery; resource management; and monitoring and evaluation. Each pillar has corresponding objectives, actions, indicators, and a specific timeframe. Nevertheless, the NAP does not have an allocated budget.
Nepal reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, the country reported on progress areas and gaps (pp. 44-49).
The most recent armed conflict in Nepal’s history is the civil war, which took place from 1996 until 2006. The conflict resulted in thousands of casualties and enforced disappearances. Even though the conflict had distinct gendered impacts, including the systematic use of sexual violence as a weapon of war as well as the inclusion of women combatants, women were excluded from the peace process and were not among the negotiators or signatories of the peace agreement. In 2015, the country established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and a Commission of Investigation on Enforced Disappeared Persons (CIEDP), with the goal to expedite legal action against perpetrators. Nevertheless, there has been a persistent lack of accountability, with ongoing impunity for perpetrators of human rights violations.
National Action Plan (2011-2016)
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
101 out of 153
Arms Trade Treaty Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$429 million USD
Explore Nepal's National Action Plan
Civil Society was involved in the development of the NAP and has a formal ongoing role in implementation, monitoring and evaluation through representation in the High Level Steering Committee, and also the District Level Committees.
Development was led by the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, but many ministries (listed below) took part in the process.
Organizations designated a formal role include: The Women's Welfare Society, Institute of Human Rights Communication Nepal, Shanti Malika, Beyond Beijing Committee, Women’s Peace Group, Women Security Pressure Group Member, Women’s Network for Peace, Power, Democracy and the Constituent Assembly, Rural Women’s Development and Unity Centre, Saathi, Women for Human Rights, Single Women’s Group, and the Nepal Society Development Centre.
Those named as implementing agencies include: Ministries of Peace and Reconstruction, Home Affairs, Defense, Foreign Affairs, Law and Justice, Information and Communications, Women, Children and Social Welfare, and the Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
Civil Society also plays an important role outside official processes, in supporting local implementation, promotion, education and oversight. For instance, the women’s organization Saathi has completed annual monitoring reviews, and in 2011 came out with a report (see above right-hand panel).
Many government ministries will assist in the Steering Committee tasked with monitoring the NAP's implementation and reporting on its progress.
WILPF's Contributions to Nepal's NAP
WILPF Nepal has conducted various programs regarding Human Rights including elimination of discrimination against women. It has also held talk programs on election campaigns for women (especially for the 1991 election) and interaction programs about implementation on CEDAW in Nepal (1992).
Neelam K.C, the current president of WILPF Nepal, has also held programs of 1325 and its implementation in the capital city of Kathmandu and plans to hold further programs in other districts as well. In addition to such programs, WILPF Nepal has also visited prisons to improve women’s conditions and has also worked actively with other women alliances to give justice to rape victims such as Suntali Dhami, who was a security personnel that was raped by 6 security personnel.
WILPF Nepal hopes to continue its work improving conditions for women in Nepal, especially for those living in the rural areas of the country. WILPF Nepal's focus is: Human Rights/CEDAW/1325, Domestic violence, Trafficking, Increase the participation of women in government decision making levels to least 33 %, Empower more women to participate in the ongoing peace process in the country, Work against the oppressive features of a conservative culture (i.e. witch-craft, chhaupady and other such superstitions)
The NAP covers the period 2011-2016, and also provides specific timeframes for the actions presented. The timeframes given described as "five years from the first year" or "three years for the first year", for example.
The Nepalese National Action Plan is structured around five ‘Pillars’ that reflect UNSCR 1325's four pillars. They are:
- Protection and Prevention
- Relief and Recovery
- Resource Management
- Monitoring and Evaluation
Each pillar has an objective and a set of strategic objectives. The objectives are:
- To ensure equitable, proportional and meaningful participation of women at all levels of decision making of conflict transformation and peace building processes
- To ensure the protection of women and girls' rights and prevention of the violation of these rights in pre-conflict, during conflict and post-conflict situations
- To promote the rights of women and girls, and mainstream gender perspectives in all aspects and stages of conflict transformation and peace building processes
- To ensure the direct and meaningful participation of conflict-affected women in the formulation and implementation of relief, recovery and rehabilitation programmes and to address the specific needs of women and girls.
- To institutionalize monitoring and evaluation and ensure required resources for the implementation of the National Action Plan through collaboration and coordination of all stakeholders
Strategic objectives include, for example, under Pillar 1, Participation:
- Formulate and revise existing policies and laws for promoting women's participation as necessary
- To ensure proportional and meaningful participation of women while making appointments and nominations in positions of public importance, special task forces and peace negotiations teams
- To increase women's participation at all levels of political parties, civil society, private sector and non-government organizations
- To strengthen advocacy and raise wide awareness at all levels for promoting women's participation
For each strategic objective, the Nepalese NAP gives a set of specific actions. For example, under Protection and Prevention's first strategic objective - "To end impunity by instituting necessary reforms in the justice and security system to enable them to promptly respond to cases of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)" - they give six specific actions:
- Put in place necessary mechanisms with required reforms for carrying out immediate investigation and action in incidents of SGBV by maintaining confidentiality and dignity
- Provide prompt and free legal service to women and girls affected by conflict
- Build capacity of office-bearers in the justice and security sector for providing prompt and effective services to victims of SGBV
- Make necessary legal provisions for prosecuting perpetrators of sexual violence during conflict period
- Make changes in the existing laws extending statutory limitation for filing complaints in connection with incidents of rape
- Maintain zero tolerance regarding sexual violence in the security sector
For each strategic objective there is a set of indicators given. For example, in the first specific action under Promotion - "Collect and document data including the causes of SGBV perpetrated on women and girls affected by conflict" - the Nepalese NAP gives one indicator: Statistical report along with the analysis of SGBV perpetrated against women and girls affected by conflict.
The Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction is responsible for overall coordination of the NAP. The NAP requires the creation of a Gender Unit at the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, which will hold responsibility for overall monitoring and evaluation and the preparation of annual progress reports. To date, no Gender Unit has been established. Ongoing monitoring, oversight, review and implementation of the NAP will occur at multiple levels, from the national to the district level.
The High Level Steering Committee, is chaired by the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction and Ministry for Foreign Affairs and comprised of government departments and Civil Society representatives. The Steering Committee is tasked with monitoring and evaluation, policy development, maintaining inter-agency coordination, generating national and international support for the NAP, providing oversight, direction and support for the development of individual departmental implementation plans and actions, and reporting NAP progress to the United Nations. The Steering Committee may also invite UN Women Nepal, representatives of the Peace Support Working Group, the Resident Representative of the United Nations Development Programme for Nepal and other experts as necessary
The Implementation Committee is comprised of government representatives and UN Women Nepal and is tasked with implementing the decisions of the Steering Committee, providing support and direction in the development of individual departmental implementation plans, developing mechanisms to promote gender awareness, mobilizing resources, monitoring implementation status and providing annual progress reports to the Steering Committee
The District Coordination Committees, operating at the local level are comprised of government, police and education representatives in addition to two women from conflict affected areas and to women’s Civil Society Representatives. The District Coordination Committees are tasked with implementing the decisions of the Implementation Committee, ensuring NAP actions are implemented at the district level, maintaining local coordination of programs and actions outlined in the NAP, carrying out district level monitoring and evaluation and providing progress reports to the Implementation Committee.
The is no monitoring and evaluation framework within the NAP, however the Indicators included within its body, measures, time-frames and a dedicated Pillar to Resource Management and Monitoring and Evaluation. This has been used as the basis for developing Monitoring and Evaluation mechanisms and producing the first monitoring report in 2012.
For the monitoring report, data was collected from relevant government ministries, Civil Society and private sector stakeholders. The review notes the significant steps taken in the first year to establish institutional structures, raise awareness and develop stakeholder collaboration. Noting these initial steps, the report recommends improving stakeholder ownership for policy makers and intended beneficiaries; data collection; coordination effectiveness at national, district and local levels. The NAP states that monitoring reports are to be made publicly available.
The NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget, but cites the need to effectively increase and mobilize resources, including from international donors. The allocation of an annual budget is included as a measure within the Indicators framework. The Implementation Committee is tasked with resource mobilization and the Ministries for Finance and Planning and Development also have responsibilities. No specific details, strategies or plans are provided within the NAP.
Despite recent conflicts and use of small arms in conflict, there is no mention in the Nepalese NAP of disarmament.