Indonesia launched its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014 for the period 2014-2019. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of People’s Welfare. While the NAP does not indicate civil society involvement, several civil society organizations were involved in the drafting of the NAP as well as being involved in its implementation. The NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS agenda mostly domestically, with the goal to protect and empower women and children during conflicts. The NAP has three overarching sections, which focus on preventive programs; resolution programs; and empowerment and participation programs. Each of these sections have specific actions and indicators, but the monitoring and evaluation framework solely consists of meetings to evaluate progress on actions identified in the NAP. Furthermore, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
The most recent armed conflict in Indonesia’s history is the Aceh conflict, which took place between 1976 and 2005 between the Indonesian government and the pro-independence Free Aceh Movement (known as Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or GAM), which demanded the independence of the Aceh region from Indonesia. The conflict concluded with a peace agreement signed in 2005, but the agreement did not include gender-sensitive provisions. Additionally, the peace agreement called for the establishment of a truth and reconciliation commission, which held its first public hearing in 2018. Previously, Indonesia occupied Timor-Leste in 1975, with ongoing presence in the country until 2002, when a referendum in Timor-Leste resulted in favor of independence.
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
85 out of 153
Arms Trade Treaty not Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$7.6 billion USD
Explore Indonesia's National Action Plan
The RAN P3A-KS does not include any mention to “civil society” and thus, it does not mention its participation in the development or implementation. Nonetheless, the Indonesian Government hold consultations with civil society, including women’s groups, and that the monitoring process is being performed by members of civil society. Civil society - has been actively involved since the drafting process of the NAP in Indonesia, with active groups including: AMAN Indonesia, the Gender Based Violence organisation, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).
WILPF does not have a country section in Indonesia and therefore was not involved in the development process of Indonesia’s NAP.
The development of the RAN P3A-KS was led by the Minister of People’s Welfare.
Civil society organizations are taking concerted action for the NAP implementation at the local level. Local NGOs are coordinating NGO networks at the regional level with aiming to drafting Local Action Plans to make implementation more effective. They work with local government representatives to build capacity and political will for addressing emerging challenges.
On the one hand, the RAN P3A-KS established the Team Coordination Centre as well as the Working Groups to be responsible for NAP implementation in Indonesia. However, there is no mention in the text of the specific actors are involved in these groups. On the other hand, in order to fulfill the goals established in the plan, the following governmental offices are to take the lead in different actions: National Commission on Women Empowerment and Child Protection or KPP PA (Activities coordinator), Indonesian Police, Ministry of Law and Human Rights, Ministry of Communication & Information, Ministry of Home Affairs, Attorney General Office, National Commission on Child Protection (KPAI), National Commission for Women, Ministry of Law and Human Rights (Activities coordinator), Ministry of Social Affairs, Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Ministry of Defense, Indonesian Armed Force, Ministry of Development of Disadvantaged Regions, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Public Information Commission, the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI).
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
There is no mention of civil society participation in the monitoring and evaluation process in the NAP.
According to the NAP, the Central Coordination Team, which is made up with RAN P3A-KS Working Groups in provinces and districts/cities, will coordinate, monitor, evaluate and report the implementation of the NAP - KS P3A to ensure synergy and continuity of the steps of protecting and empowering women and children during conflicts.
The timeframe set for the RAN P3A-KS is from 2014-2019. It is set to be implemented gradually and continuously consisting of a preparation stage by 2014 and an implementation stage in 2015-2019.
The RAN P3A-KS program consists of series of activities carried out in a systematic and planned manner to protect and empower women as well as children during social conflicts, as an integral part of social conflict resolution activities. In order to do so, the RAN P3A-KS program is divided into 3 sections:
- Preventive programs;
- Resolution programs;
- Empowerment and participation programs.
Every section in the NAP has its own issues to address and the actions that are considered priority in order to do so. For instance, in the first section, “Preventive programs”, the first issue refers to “The absence of accurate data and studies on women and children in conflict areas” and the goal set is to “Provide data and studies on women and children in conflicts areas”. In order to do so, there are two activities set:
- Mapping data on women and children in conflicts areas;
- Conduct studies of gender-based violence cases from conflicts.
The issues located along the three sections, have different goals, which have their own indicators. In the case of the second section, “Handling program”, the first issue is “Incomplete accurate data on women and children who need care in conflict areas” and the goal set is “Provides data on women and children who need care in conflict areas. In order to achieve it, the indicator set is “Data on women and children who need care in conflict areas”.
There are three governmental actors that will coordinate the efforts to achieve the goals set. The preventive program coordinator is the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, the Handling program coordinator is the National Police, and the Empowerment and Participation program coordinator is the Ministry of Social Affairs.
A core team of National Coordinating Team has regular meetings to review the implementation and strengthening coordination within the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection and the Ministry of Human Development and Culture.
Despite stating that the funding needed to implement RAN P3A-KS shall be allocated from the budgets of the respective ministries/institutions, the NAP does not mention the amount of money allocated for each activity. Moreover, it does not include strategies or mechanisms to ensure activities are funded within departmental budgets. Finally, no indicators or actions are included that formulate strategies for sourcing increased funding, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing RAN P3A-KS.
The Indonesia NAP does not mention disarmament or any specific actions to be taken.