Nigeria adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2017 for the period 2017-2020. The NAP was developed by the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development with the support of the Nigerian Stability Reconciliation Programme (NSRP), the European Union, and UN Women. The NAP’s objectives are compiled under five overarching thematic pillars: prevention and disaster preparedness; participation and representation; protection and prosecution; crisis management, early recovery, and post-conflict reconstruction; and partnerships, coordination, and management. The strategic objectives have corresponding actions, outcomes, indicators, target completion timeframes, and lead actors. Nevertheless, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
Nigeria’s most recent NAP is preceded by one other NAP, adopted in 2013 and implemented for the period 2013-2017. In the course of implementing the first NAP, several gaps were observed and formed the basis, among other reasons, to review the plan in order to incorporate emerging issues in Nigeria (i.e., non-inclusion of violent extremism and limited consideration of post-conflict and reintegration issues), as well as address the gaps identified (i.e., absence of crisis management and recovery strategies, ambiguous language and inadequate monitoring and evaluation architecture).
Nigeria reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, the country indicated that there has been inclusion of women in councils of traditional rulers and periodic gender training for security sector agencies; the social investment budget has been formally introduced into the government budget; and there has been a marginal upsurge in women’s political participation (p. 14).
Nigeria gained independence in 1960 from the United Kingdom, after decades of colonial rule by the British empire. Between 1967 and 1970, Nigeria experienced a civil war, which was preceded by a history of military coups. Most recently, since 2009, the conflict in the country’s northeast caused by Boko Haram has resulted in an upsurge in violence against women and girls, manifesting itself in the form of systematic abductions. Specifically, following the abductions in 2014, international security meetings on countering Boko Haram were held in London and Paris but failed to include Nigerian women’s civil society organisations.
At the multilateral level, Nigeria most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2014-2015.
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
128 out of 153
Arms Trade Treaty Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$1.860 billion USD
Explore Nigeria's National Action Plan
The review process of Nigeria's NAP was inclusive, participatory and included input from civil society organisations and faith-based organisations. A Steering Committee on UNSCR1325 provided guidance for the overall preparation process. The Steering Committee consisted of various government ministries, UN entities and civil society organizations.
The Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development was the lead agency in the development process of Nigeria's NAP. The NAP Steering Committee, which consisted of government ministries, departments, agencies and civil society organisations, provided guidance for the overall NAP development process.
Civil society organisations will be present in the process of NAP implementation along with federal ministries, Nigerian Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), National Refugee Commission and development partners, such as UN Women, UNHCR, UNFPA and others.
The Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development is in charge of providing strategic leadership, overall guidance and supervision for the NAP implementation.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The monitoring and evaluation framework which also incorporates a reporting template was developed after careful consultations at zonal and national levels, including with leaders of civil society.
The monitoring and evaluation framework, which also incorporates a reporting template, was developed after careful consultations at zonal and national levels, including with leaders of civil society. This framework is to be used at all levels such as federal, state and community levels. The National Technical Working Group (NTWG) has a critical role in the monitoring and evaluation of the plan. Reports from the local and state levels can be sent to the NAP Secretariat housed in the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs.
WILPF's Contributions to Nigeria's NAP
WILPF Nigeria actively participated in the development process of the second Nigerian NAP. Joy Onyesoh, WILPF Nigeria’s President, has served as a zonal consultant for the South West of Nigeria providing technical insights and guidance to the process. WILPF Nigeria participated in the validation process of the reviewed NAP.
WILPF Nigeria aims to provide a platform to address conflicts through peaceful and nonviolent means, and to build women’s capacity as leaders both at the grassroots and national levels. To fulfil its mission, WILPF Nigeria uses the CEDAW and the UNSCR 1325 as a powerful tool to advocate for women’s rights and for a better representation of women within security issues. The Section organises seminars for women’s capacity building and for increasing the overall understanding of human rights, while promoting women as agents of change and peace.
WILPF Nigeria is also leading the implementation of the Women’s Situation Room Nigeria (WSRN) which makes the connection between women’s essential role in conflict prevention and women’s active participation in the electoral process, specifically related to observing, monitoring, and reporting on electoral and gender-based violence during the elections.
The implementation period for the Nigerian National Plan of Action is three years (2017-2020).
The primary objectives of Nigeria's NAP are focused on what Nigeria's NAP refers to as the Five Pillars: Prevention, Participation, Protection, Crisis Management, Partnerships.
- Prevention and Disaster Preparedness: To ensure prevention of conflict and all forms of violence against women and girls, institute coping mechanisms and systems for averting and mitigating disasters;
- Protection and Prosecution: To ensure the rights of women and girls are protected and promoted in conflict and peace and also to prosecute such rights violations;
- Participation and Representation: To increase participation and engagement of women and inclusion of women’s interests in decision-making processes related to conflict prevention and peacebuilding;
- Crisis Management, Early Recovery and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: To ensure specific relief and recovery needs of women and girls are met and women’s capacities to act as agents in crisis, recovery and post-conflict situations are reinforced;
- Partnerships, Coordination and Management: To ensure increase in the capacity and resources to coordinate, implement, monitor and report on women, peace and security plans and programmes.
Each area of work has different actions assigned. For example, Pillar 1 (Prevention and Disaster Preparedness) includes the following actions:
- Establishment of new laws aimed at protecting women and girls in conflict and disaster;
- Implementation of existing and new laws and policies that enhance conflict prevention systems for women;
- Training of MDAs (Ministries, Departments and Agencies) and stakeholders on inclusive and gender-responsive approaches to services for conflict and disaster prevention.
Each strategic objective has a number of listed indicators. For example, the first objective of Pillar 1, “Establishment of new laws aimed at protecting women and girls in conflict and disaster”, includes several indicators:
- Number and types of laws and policies enacted;
- Level of compliance to laws and policies safeguarding women from conflict;
- Extent to which preventable disasters and violations of human rights of women and girls are reported, referred and investigated;
- Number and any types of cases/actions taken/recommendations made to address preventable disasters and violations affecting women and girls.
The monitoring and evaluation framework which also incorporates a reporting template was developed after careful consultations at zonal and national levels, including with leaders of civil society. This framework is to be used at all levels such as federal, state, zonal and community levels.
Pillar 5 of the NAP aims at ensuring increase in resources available to to coordinate, implement, monitor and report on women, peace and security plans and programmes. The NAP will be financed through domestic and external support through a multi-stakeholder approach. Domestic sources include state and non-state actors operating within Nigeria such as the Organized Private Sector, revenue generating state agencies, state governments, and financial Financial Institutions. External sources include UN entities, Regional Economic Community and multi/bi-lateral relations.
Nigeria's NAP does not discuss disarmament issues despite the recent conflicts and use of small arms that have affected women, children, and the civilian population in general.