Romania adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014 for the period 2014-2024. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Defense and focuses on implementation of the WPS agenda in the context of defense policy. The NAP does not identify civil society inclusion in the NAP development process. Romania’s NAP contextualizes the WPS agenda by providing an overview of legislative landmarks pertaining to the advancement of women’s rights at the domestic level. The NAP focuses heavily on increasing the number of women within the military and its scope focuses on this and related objectives. Furthermore, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
In 2020, Romania adopted a more holistic National Action Plan for the period 2020-2023. Analysis of this plan is forthcoming.
Romania transitioned into a democratic regime in 1989, after an extensive period under communist rule. Romania does not have a recent history of armed conflict. However, the country has had a tense relationship with its ethnic Hungarian population, which resulted in violent clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Târgu Mureș in 1990. A former member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program, Romania officially joined NATO in 2004.
At the multilateral level, Romania most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2004-2005.
National Action Plan (2020-2023)
Ministry of Defense National Action Plan (2014-2024)
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
55 / 153
Arms Trade Treaty Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$4.9 billion USD
Explore Romania's National Action Plan
A number of actors are listed in the beginning of the NAP as being the key actors involved, specifically: the Ministry of National Defense, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Romanian Intelligence Service, the Special Telecommunication Service, the Protection and Guard Service, the National Agency for Equal Opportunities between women and men, the National Administration of Penitentiaries, the National University of Political and Administrative Studies, the Civil organization non-profit FRONT, and the Mediation Council.
There is a National Implementation Group which is responsible for implementing the NAP and monitoring its implementation.
The fourth objective of the NAP is to facilitate cooperation with civil society in the process of implementing the WPS agenda. Under this objective, there are several activities and indicators regarding developing partnerships with NGOs and creating a permanent consultative process with civil society and academia.
The monitoring of the NAP’s implementation will be done by the National Implementation Group, which includes representatives from the following institutions: Ministry of National Defense, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Romanian Intelligence Service, Special Telecommunication Service, Protection and Guard Service, National Agency for Equal Opportunities between women and men and National Administration of Penitentiaries. The NAP states that this group will also cooperate with other actors including parliamentarians and civil society. The Gender Management Office is the Secretariat of this group.
The NAP will be implemented for the period 2020-2023.
The National Action Plan grounds itself within the context of the WPS resolutions and the pillars of the agenda, as well as other frameworks in the EU and NATO. It also contextualizes itself within the history of Romania’s domestic work on women’s rights, including CEDAW and national strategies on gender equality, as well as the Ministry of National Defense’s Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 (2014-2024).
It states that its main goal is to create the “basis for a series of common policies and directives for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 (2000) used by the institutions of the national defence, public order and national defence system of Romania, as well as other central administration institutions with responsibilities in this field”.
There are four main objectives of the NAP: Integration of gender perspective in security and defence policies; Increase the representation and significant participation of women in peace negotiations, mediation processes and within peace keeping missions; Prevent and combat all forms of gender based discrimination, harassment and sexual violence; and Cooperation with the civil society in the process of implementing the WPS agenda.
Chapter 4 of the NAP contains a series of concrete activities, with deadlines, responsible ministries or actors, financial resources, and indicators. Examples of planned activities include:
- Construction of a common database regarding WPS specialists in the national defence, public order and national security systems, academic environment and civilian community
- Elaborate an SOP regarding the reporting and response mechanism with regards to the incidents that involve sexual exploitation and abuse committed by Romanian military and civilian personnel deployed abroad
- Introduce training programmes regarding gender equality in all academic institutions of the security and defence sectors
The NAP reports on existing efforts to promote the participation of women in different aspects of peace and security through detailed statistics over time.
Under Chapter 4 of the NAP, there is a table with planned activities and associated indicators. Indicators include:
- Training the forces prior to deployment for peace keeping missions regarding the protection and support of sexual and gender violence victims, as well as how to report such cases
- Conduct at least one training per semester regarding prevention and combating sexual harassment and discrimination
- Periodically create and update WPS study materials as well as academic curriculum based on Resolution 1325(2000)
The NAP contains a monitoring and evaluation framework in Chapter 5. Monitoring and evaluation will be conducted by a dedicated implementation group (see above), which will include civil society.
All institutions that are part of the national implementation group will submit annual reports regarding the implementation of the NAP. There will be a half-term evaluation of the NAP in the second quarter of 2022, and the secretariat will analyze the results and propose updates and amendments to the NAP.
The NAP indicates that it has an allocated budget, which is referenced in the table that details indicators and planned activities. The number is not listed.
The NAP does not indicate planned work on disarmament.
The 2014-2024 NAP does not indicate civil society inclusion in the development of the NAP.
WILPF does not have a country section in Romania and was therefore not involved in the development of the NAP.
The NAP was developed by Romania’s Ministry of Defense.
The NAP lists, “Initiating, maintaining and developing the cooperation between the organization Romanian civil society in order to harmonize the means of helping the female population with specific needs” as one of the objectives. For this, the NAP lists “non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children, Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, etc.” as cooperation partners in the implementation of this objective. However, the NAP does not indicate further inclusion of Romanian civil society in the implementation of the NAP.
A working group will oversee the implementation of the NAP. The working group will consist of representatives from the following government departments: Defense Policy and Planning; Human Resources Management; Personnel and Mobilization; Military Intelligence; Operations; Strategic Planning; Training and Doctrine; Information and Public Relations. The working group will also include experts from the 1st CIMIC Battalion (Batalionul 1 Cooperare Civil-Militară — the Civil-Military Cooperation Battalion of the Romanian Land Forces).
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP does not indicate civil society inclusion in the monitoring and evaluation of the NAP.
The NAP indicates that a working group, which consists of the above stated government bodies as well as experts from the 1st CIMIC Battalion, will be responsible for the periodic updating of the action plan.
The implementation period of the NAP is ten years (2014-2024).
The NAP states that the overarching objectives of the action plan is to:
- Increase the number of women in military operations outside the national territory;
- Increase the involvement of women in the decision-making process;
- Increase inter-ministerial cooperation with non-governmental organizations and civil society
The NAP also includes an implementation matrix with the following five objectives:
- Increase the number of women involved in the entire area of activities carried out at the Ministry of National Defense level;
- Promote the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 within the Ministry of National Defense;
- Promoting the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense in the Romanian media;
- Promote the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense, in theaters of operations and in allied and/or host countries mass- media;
- Evaluating and reporting on the implementation of UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense.
The NAP has an implementation matrix that breaks down each objective with corresponding tasks, responsible officer/cooperation, indicators/assessment, and implementation period. For example, objective 1 identifies “Increase the participation and involvement of women in specific activities of the Ministry of National Defense, at all hierarchical levels and in all areas of expertise, including in the decision- making process and in the peacekeeping missions” as an activity (p. 5, implementation matrix).
The NAP identifies several performance indicators for each objective, outlined on the implementation matrix. For example, objective #1 identifies “Number and percentage of women” and “The number and percentage of women involved in decision-making and peacekeeping missions should increase compared to 2013” as performance indicators (p. 5, implementation matrix).
Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP indicates that a working group will be established to oversee the implementation and periodic updating of the action plan. No further monitoring and evaluation plan is included as part of the NAP.
The NAP does not contain an allocated or estimated budget.
The NAP does not mention disarmament or demilitarization.