Kenya launched its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2020 for the period 2020-2024. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Public Service and Gender and the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government. The NAP indicates and acknowledges the involvement of civil society organizations in the NAP development process, but does not specify which civil society actors were a part of the process. The NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS agenda both domestically and internationally, and has four overarching objectives that align with the key pillars of the UNSCR 1325: participation; prevention; protection; and relief and recovery. The NAP addresses disarmament only briefly in the relief and recovery pillar, and through a narrow framework, to incorporate a gender-sensitive design into all disarmament, demobilization, and rehabilitation (DDR) efforts. While the NAP does have a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework, it does not include an allocated budget, instead holding various ministries and bodies at the national and county levels to allocate a part of their budget for the assigned activities.
Kenya’s second NAP is preceded by one other NAP, adopted in 2016 and implemented for the period 2016-2018. The NAP compiles its objectives under four thematic pillars that align with the framework of Resolution 1325: participation and promotion; prevention; protection; relief and recovery. In 2019, Kenya carried out a review of their first NAP to assess the level of implementation, and the findings and recommendations of the review was utilized to inform the development of the second NAP. Specifically, the particular recommendations used for the development of the NAP included the following: deepen the institutionalization of the revised NAP; map out actors implementing the women, peace, and security agenda at all levels; strengthen the awareness and implementation of the NAP at the local level; and develop an effective monitoring and accountability system. Despite the revisions, the second NAP, similar to its predecessor, does not address disarmament beyond the narrow framework of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) efforts.
Kenya gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1963, after decades of colonial rule by the British empire. The most recent armed conflict in Kenya’s history took place after the presidential elections of 2007 and lasted until 2008. During this period of civil and political unrest, over 1,100 people were killed, more than 600,000 people displaced, and at least 900 cases of sexual violence were recorded. Survivors of sexual violence suffered significant physical and psychological trauma and socioeconomic hardship, worsened by the Kenyan government’s failure to provide measures such as medical care and psychosocial support. The conflict drew national and international attention and prompted the establishment of a Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC). More recently, Kenya has been experiencing further political instability as a result of Al Qaeda and Al Shabaab’s operations within Kenya’s boundaries and in neighbouring Somalia. Women’s security is greatly affected by these attacks by extremist groups alongside the proliferation of small arms and light weapons.
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
109 out of 153
Arms Trade Treaty not Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$1.148 billion USD
Explore Kenya's National Action Plan
CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS
The KNAP II acknowledges the involvement of civil society organizations (CSOs), and academic and faith-based organizations “for their invaluable contribution and tireless efforts throughout the entire process towards the successful completion of the document. While the NAP was developed through a “consultative, participatory and collaborative effort”, the involvement of specific CSOs in the NAP development process was not listed.
CSOs are not the lead implementing agencies of the NAP, however, they are required to support the Ministry of Public Service and Gender and other ministries in the implementation of the interventions in various ways.
NAP MONITORING AND EVALUATION
CSOs are involved in the community level reporting wherein they are required to share a quarterly progress report to the County Technical Working Group.
The development of the KNAP II was led jointly by the Ministry of Public Service and Gender (State Department for Gender), and the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government.
The Ministry of Public Service and Gender will provide strategic leadership and overall guidance and supervision for the implementation of the KNAP II. “The Ministry will co-chair the process with the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government. These two lead ministries will work closely with other key ministries, departments, and agencies at the national and county level, with civil society organizations, including women’s organizations, and with academia and the private sector to implement and deliver on the commitments of KNAP II.”
NAP MONITORING AND EVALUATION
The National Steering Technical Committee will be the lead body for the monitoring and evaluation of KNAP II. “The committee will be chaired by the Ministry of Public Service and Gender (State Department for Gender) and co-chaired by the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government (Directorate of Peacebuilding and Conflict Management)”.
KNAP II was adopted for the period 2020-2024. The NAP also mentions a timeframe for all the pillars and outputs in its implementation matrix. The baseline is 2020, and the milestones are to be achieved in 2021, 2022 and 2023 and the target in 2024.
The critical pillars in KNAP II include: Participation and Promotion; Prevention; Protection; Relief and Recovery. The objectives of these pillars are as follows:
- To increase the inclusive and effective engagement of women at all decision-making levels in peace, security, and disaster management
- To enhance the prevention of conflict and all forms of violence against women, girls, and vulnerable groups through gender-sensitive institutional, structural, and social transformation
- To protect women and girls and other vulnerable groups, including migrants, refugees, and internally displaced persons, in all forms of conflict and violence.
- To ensure women and girls have the capacity to effectively engage in relief and recovery, and have access to services in humanitarian settings, including periods of disaster/crisis
Each of the pillars have various outputs which then have interventions/actions assigned. For instance, in pillar 2: prevention, for the output: “Gender-responsive early warning systems, disaster management, and conflict prevention mechanisms and strategies strengthened”, the actions included are:
- Integrate gender responsiveness into early warning and early response systems and into conflict prevention mechanisms, including the prevention of violent extremism.
- Conduct research on the use of existing indigenous and traditional knowledge on women’s roles in early warning and early response.
Each of the pillars have various outputs and respective interventions and indicators. For instance, for pillar 3: Protection and the output, “Laws and policies that protect women’s and girls’ rights strengthened and implemented”, the indicators are as follows:
- Number of laws, policies, and measures adapted and reviewed that protect and promote women’s and girl’s human rights in line with regional and international standards
- Number of measures taken by national and county governments to implement human rights provisions that protect women’s and girl’s rights
- Number of duty bearers and rights holders reached through awareness-raising initiatives on existing laws that protect women’s and girl’s rights
The NAP includes a detailed plan for the monitoring and evaluation of the actions. The National Steering Technical Committee is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the KNAP II. The committee will also oversee the development and submissions of the quarterly and yearly reports.
There is no particular earmarked budget to implement the various interventions stated. However, the NAP states that it is the responsibility of various ministries and bodies at the national and county levels to allocate a part of their budget for the activities.
The KNAP II addresses disarmament under the relief and recovery pillar which focuses on incorporating a gender-sensitive design into all disarmament, demobilization, and rehabilitation efforts and peace support initiatives.