Ghana adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2020 for the period 2020-2025. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MoGCSP) with participation and collaboration with local (WPSI KAIPTC, WILPF Ghana), regional (WANEP) and international (UNDP, Canadian High Commission) partners. The NAP acknowledges the inputs received from the Women, Peace and Security Institute-Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (WPSI-KAIPTC), West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WANEP) and WILPF Ghana in the development of the NAP while also stating that civil society will be included in the NAP implementation process. The overall goal of the NAP is “to build inclusive, secure and safe societies for women and girls in Ghana anchored on the tenets of UNSCR 1325” (p. 13). The NAP is structured with reference to the main pillars of UNSCR 1325: participation; protection; prevention; and recovery and rehabilitation. The NAP focuses heavily on advancing the implementation of Resolution 1325 through increased institutional structures, collaborations with stakeholders, creating a resource base, and strengthening monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. While the NAP has a detailed implementation matrix, it does not include an allocated budget.
Ghana’s second NAP is preceded by one other NAP, adopted in 2010, launched in 2012, and implemented for the 2012-2014 period. The first NAP was developed by the Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs with broad-based participation from civil society. The original implementation period of the NAP was 2012-2014, but the plan could not be put into effect for 2012 as a result of the amount of time it took to formally adopt it. There were also some critical gaps in the NAP’s implementation: unavailability of an inter-ministerial steering committee to coordinate the implementation in a concerted manner; lack of a dedicated budget for the implementation; lack of a fundraising strategy and initiatives to raise funds to complement the Ministry’s limited annual government funding; competing priorities and resources in the various implementing sector ministries; lack of coordination between different stakeholders; non-availability of a pool of women with capacity in Women Peace and Security (WPS) to spearhead the implementation coordinated by MoGCSP; and lack of awareness of the NAP among various security institutions and the general public (p. 6). The second NAP seeks to address the lessons learned and overcome the challenges faced in the implementation of Ghana’s first NAP.
Ghana reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, the country provided the following updates, among others:
- The Kofi Annan International Peace Keeping Training Centre continues train an average of 100 professionals on Gender, Peace and Security every year.
- The Ghana Police Service has developed a gender policy to mainstream gender in their operations and administration.
- The Bureau of National Investigations has also established a gender office with a senior officer as the head. This agency currently has 52% women of the total staff population (p. 18).
Ghana gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957, after decades of colonial rule under the British empire. The country experienced multiple military coups in 1966, 1972, and 1981. Ghana does not have a recent history of armed conflict, but has experienced sporadic ethnic tension with adverse impacts on especially women and girls.
In 2011, Ghana established a Women, Peace, and Security Institute with the goal to increase women’s participation in peace negotiations, peacekeeping activities, and preventive diplomacy efforts in Africa.
At the multilateral level, Ghana was most recently a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2006-2007.
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
107 out of 153
Arms Trade Treaty Ratified
Military expenditure (2019)
$244 million USD
Explore Ghana's National Action Plan
The NAP acknowledges inputs received from the NGO's including Women's Groups and Faith-based organizations. The Women Peace and Security Network Africa (WIPSEN-Africa) and the Women Peacemakers Program of the West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WPP/WANEP) are specifically mentioned as CSO's that contributed in the process of Ghana's NAP development.
A Consultative Forum was organized by the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs in 2009 to finalize the preparation of the NAP and to provide stakeholders the opportunity to participate in the process. Participants included civil society organizations. In addition, a Validation Workshop was organized by Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs in collaboration with key stakeholders, including civil society organizations, to discuss the indicators in the NAP.
Civil society organizations (CSO) are listed as "Other Partners" on several Output Objectives throughout the NAP. The "Primary Stakeholder/Lead Agency" for each of the objectives however is the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP states that the services of a consultant will be contracted for the monitoring and evaluation of the coordination and implementation process of Ghana's NAP.
The NAP acknowledges the inputs received from the Women, Peace and Security Institute-Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (WPSI-KAIPTC), West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WANEP) and WILPF Ghana.
The NAP also mentions the role of an independent development practitioner in leading the NAP development.
The NAP states NGOs and Community-based Organizations (CBOs) in the stakeholder analysis (p 9) and implementation plan (p 14) to play the potential role of awareness creation, advocacy and lobbying. However, the implementation of the NAP is primarily carried out by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection along with other ministries.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP’s Monitoring and Evaluation framework (p 21) mention civil society as a key stakeholder for local-level implementation as well as one of the members of the Preliminary Annual Strategy Planning meeting. However, the overall responsibility for M&E is of the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection.
WILPF's Contributions to Ghana's NAP
WILPF International did not have a country section in Ghana and therefor was not involved in the development process of Ghana's NAP.
WILPF International has a country section in Ghana. The GHANAP II acknowledges and specially mentions the commitment and inputs of Ms Ayo Ayoola-Amale from WILPF Ghana in the document’s development.
The Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs was the lead government ministry in the development process of Ghana's NAP.
The Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs is the listed as the Primary Stakeholder / Lead Agency for each Output Objective. Various partners including other government ministries, civil society organizations, academic institutions and media.
NAP Monitoring & Evaluation
The NAP states that the services of a Consultant will be contracted for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the coordination and implementation process of Ghana's NAP.
Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MoGCSP) was the lead government ministry in the development process of Ghana’s NAP.
The MoGCSP, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs (p 9) are all involved in various capacities in implementing the NAP.
NAP MONITORING AND EVALUATION
The MoGCSP, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Education (p 21) are all involved in various capacities in the NAP’s M&E.
The Ghana NAP covers the time period of 2012 to 2014. No specific timeframe is set on the Action / Activities. For every output objective the timeframe states 2012-2014. There is no scheduled deadline for implementation, monitoring or evaluation.
Ghana’s second National Action Plan (GHANAP2) for the implementation of UNSCR1325 is for a five-year period from 2020 – 2024.
The primary objectives of Ghana's NAP are based on the three pillars - Protection, Participation and Prevention. Protection Protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls in situations of conflict and in peace support operations.
Outcome Objective: Ensure the rights, interests and special needs of women and girls are integrated in policy formulation and implementation as to enhance the protection of women and girls.
Participation of women in conflict prevention, peace and security institutions and processes. Outcome Objective: Ensure the full representation and active participation of women in conflict prevention, resolution, peace negotiation, mediation, crisis and security management at all levels of Ghananian Society.
Prevention of violence against women including sexual, gender-based and conflict related violence. Outcome Objective: Contribute to reduced conflict and the eradication of violence against women and girls in both private and public spheres.
The NAP is structured along the main UNSCR 1325 pillars of; 1. Participation 2. Protection 3. Prevention 4. Relief, Recovery and Rehabilitation.
Each of these pillars has a specific goal and objectives. For instance:
For Pillar 1 i.e. Participation, the specific goal is “participation and representation of women in decision making and peace process ensured”. The objectives of the pillar include: Increase the participation of women in conflict management and peacebuilding activities; Increase the participation of women on WPS issues at traditional, local, district and national levels; Enhance capacities for gender-sensitive external and internal peacekeeping operations.
Example taken from NAP under Pillar One, Output Objective - "Institutional mechanisms in the security and justice sector strengthened to protect women and prosecute perpetrators of sexual and gender-based violence."
- Strengthen multi-sectoral collaboration between security and justice agencies.
- Sensitization and training of law enforcement and judicial personnel .
- Advocacy for the creation of SGBV units within security and justice institutions.
- Organize joint SGBV seminars and trainings for security and justice personnel.
- Support the development of a joined up response strategy for SGBV for the security and justice sector.
- Train personnel of security and justice sectors on women's rights and SGBV.
- Provide technical and logistical support to the Ghana Police Service, Narcotic Board, Ghana Prisons Service and Judiciary to enhance their competence in responding to SGBV.
Each of the objectives stated in the NAP has corresponding activities. For instance, the activities listed for Pillar 2 (protection) objective “promote a culture of peace” is:
- Undertake gender and non-violent peacebuilding sensitization at the community level for women and youth groups.
- Institute an annual award for CSOs and security institutions adhering to the tenets of UNSCR 1325.
Each Pillar in the NAP has indicators for their respective objectives. For instance, the NAP Pillar 3 (Prevention) has the following indicators: Level of awareness on law and policies on WPS among population; Number of reported cases on SGBV; Number of domestic peacekeeping found guilty and sanctioned for SGBV; Number of personnel found guilty and prosecuted.
The NAP states that the services of a Consultant will be contracted for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the coordination and implementation process. Included in the "Next Steps" is the establishment of an Inter-Ministerial Committee to assist in monitoring the implementation of the NAP.
GHANAP 2 states that “while the overall monitoring and evaluation will be the responsibility of the Ministry of Gender Children and Social Protection, the (M&E) framework has built-in mechanisms at the different levels of implementation which also allows for adjustments to be made in course of implementation based on unforeseen circumstances and emerging opportunities.” (p 21)
Ghana's NAP mentions the importance of allocation and material resources towards the implementation of the National Action Plan however there is no specific allocated budget in Ghana's NAP.
The indicators in Ghana's NAP are specified by specific activity. Indicators range from measurable and specific to non-measurable and vague. Example taken from Pillar Three: Prevention
Specific Activity: Simplify and translate women's rights and instruments into five main local languages.
Indicator: Level of awareness of SGBV and the extent of intolerance for SGBV.
Specific Activity: Capacity building and training.
Indicator: Number and percentage of SGBV cases reported, investigated and prosecuted.
The NAP does not mention an estimated budget for the various activities listed. However, it states that the GHANAP 2 will be “financed using a multi-stakeholder approach including domestic and external sources. The Domestic sources are state and non-state actors operating within Ghana. They include direct Government of Ghana (GoG) budget funding and funding from private and corporate organizations operating in Ghana.”
Additionally, it also states that “MoGCSP in its annual budget will make provisions for adequate funds for the implementation of GHANAP 2. The supporting ministries of Defence, Interior, Finance, Local Government and Foreign Affairs will also budget for their roles in relation to the various aspects of the GHANAP 2 pillars they are committed to. Budgets of the MMDAs will make allocations in the District Assembly Common Fund (DACF) and their Internally Generated Funds (IGFs) towards implementation at their level.”
Ghana's NAP is one of the few NAP's with language and actions relating to disarmament. An output objective with specific activities related to disarmament is listed under Pillar Three; Prevention.
- Promote measures to prevent and/or control misuses of illicit small arms and light weapons.
- Advocacy for the domestication of international and continental instruments.
- Review of firearms and ammunition laws in light of international, regional and sub-regional instruments.
- Organize consultative meetings with women groups and female parliamentarians to generate inputs for the review of the firearms and ammunition laws.
- Organize a consultative meeting with the AG's Office to discuss and develop and roadmap for the review of firearms and ammunition laws from a gender perspectives.
- Organize a validation workshop with women's groups.
- Extent to which reviewed law reflect gender sensitivity.
- Existence of a gender-sensitive firearms and ammunition law approved by Parliament.
- Extent to which reviewed firearms and ammunition law incorporates pro-women/gender provisions from international, regional, and sub-regional instruments
Primary Stakeholder / Lead Agency:
Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs
WAANSA; GNACSA; Ministries of Interior and Defense; Parliament; AG Office, MLGRD, Local Government Service
GHANAP 2 does not include any references or specific action in disarmament which is a step back as GHANAP 1 was considered to be one of the few NAPs that included language and action related to disarmament.