Brazil

Brazil adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2017, for the period 2017-2019. The NAP was developed by an interministerial working group, which consisted of the Ministries Foreign Affairs; Defense; Justice; Public Security; and Human Rights, with a participatory approach that included consultations with civil society organizations. The NAP identifies four major goals that aim to increase the participation of women in international peace and security; prevent gender-based violence and promote the human rights of all women and girls before, during, and after conflict; strengthen humanitarian actions through a gender-sensitive framework; and expand awareness of the WPS agenda within Brazil. While each objective has corresponding actions, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.   

Brazil reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, the country provided the following updates: 

  • Considering that the National Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security will soon reach its term, the review process has already begun. As in the preparation of the text of the NPA, the review process is led by the Inter‐ministerial Working Group, coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and encompassing the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Justice and Public Safety, Ministry of Women, Family and Human Rights, UN‐Women and Instituto Igarapé as a representative of civil society.
  • The review process began in 1 November 2018, in Brasília, with a seminar entitled “National Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security: implementation and review”. This event, organized in partnership with the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation (FUNAG), included representatives from governmental agencies, military officials, foreign governments and civil society. The debates provided conclusions and suggestions that inform the efforts to review the NPA. Among those, the importance of effective and continuous monitoring mechanisms on national plans was particularly highlighted. There has also been opinions in support of broadening the scope of participation and capacity training of non‐military women (diplomats, police officers and civilians) in peacekeeping operations, special political missions, negotiations on peace and security issues and mediation.

Brazil does not have a history of recent armed conflict, but went through a period of military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985. To this date, impunity persists for human rights violations by military officers, with a 1979 amnesty law, which was upheld in 2010 by the country’s supreme court, protecting perpetrators. Brazil experiences deep socioeconomic inequalities, with protests erupting over public funds spent for the World Cup in 2014 as well as the mistreatment of marginalized residents and laborers. 

Brazil has a vibrant feminist movement, and women across the country are working to protect and promote women’s human rights, including through the participation of women’s civil society organizations in institutions such as the National Council on Women’s Rights

In 2019, Brazil was among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure as well as being among the top 25 arms exporters in the world. 

At the multilateral level, Brazil most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2010-2011. 

CEDAW

1994

Global Gender Gap Index 2020

92 out of 153

Arms Trade Treaty Signed

2014

Military expenditure (2019)

$27 billion USD

Explore Brazil's National Action Plan

  • Actors
  • Timeframe
  • Objectives
  • Actions/Activities
  • Indicators
  • M&E
  • Budget
  • Disarmament

NAP Development

Civil society members Instituto Igarapé supported the development of Brazil’s NAP and contributed the development of support for the NAP by organising consultations with government institutions, civil society organisations and experts from academia.

WILPF does not have a country section in Brazil and therefore was not involved in the development process of Brazil’s NAP.

Prior the official launch of the NAP, Brazil has undertook several attempts to broaden women’s participation  in decision-making, security and peacekeeping. These initiatives include the Multi-Year Plan (2012-2015) and the National Plan of policies for Women.

Since August 2015, the preparation of the Plan was carried out by the Working Group, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, representatives of the Ministry of Defense including the three Armed Forces, and the Ministries of Justice and Public Security and Human Rights and the Ministry of Justice and Citizenship, with participation of Instituto Igarapé and Pandiá Calógeras.

NAP Implementation

Civil society will support the NAP’s implementation, educate and expand their cooperation with the ministries that implement the NAP.

The Brazilian NAP will be implemented by government officials, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Defense and the Brazilian Government.  

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Civil society does not have an important role in monitoring and evaluation. According to the NAP, civil society and other actors will be used to spread the “knowledge and engagement about the National Action Plan in Brazil.”

The actors for monitoring and evaluating are the Ministries of Defense, Foreign Relations, Justice and Public Security, and Human Rights. Their roles are to monitor mechanisms of the NAP’s implementation by creating reports on the measures taken to meet the objectives and activities, the progress made, and the challenges identified.

The implementation period for the Brazilian National Plan of Action is two years starting in March 2017.

Brazil’s National Action Plan is organised by four Pillars as follows:

  • Pillar 1: To increase the effective participation of Brazilian women in international peace and security activities, including in leadership positions and promote the effective participation of local women;
  • Pillar 2: To expand and improve Brazil’s contribution to tackle gender-based violence and to protect the human rights of all women and girls in conflict situations, pre and post-conflict;
  • Pillar 3: To strengthen the gender perspective in Brazil's role in  the development and execution of consolidation of peace and humanitarian activities of cooperation;
  • Pillar 4: To expand awareness of the WPS Agenda in Brazilian society.

Each pillar has different actions assigned. For example, Pillar 1 “to increase the effective participation of Brazilian women in international peace and security activities, including in leadership positions and promote the effective participation of local women” includes the following actions:

  • Increase the sense of security of the local population and extends the range of peace operations skills;
  • Facilitate the inclusion of ex-combatant women during the process of demobilisation and reintegration into society;
  • Expand information of collection networks;
  • Contribute to interviews with survivors of gender-based violence;
  • Promote a better interaction with women in local societies and serve as a model for local women;
  • Have women contribute as instructors at military academies.

The NAP does not identify any indicators towards the implementation of its actions/activities.

The reporting and review processes are follow-up tasks of NAP compliance from Gender Commissions and/or specific committees’ contributions. At the end of 2018, the Working Group will reconvene in order to assess the Plan’s implementation and make any necessary adjustments. Any desire to make a new NAP during the implementation period will be discussed by the Working Group, which will present its recommendations to the institutions and bodies involved.

Brazil does not include an allocated or estimated budget. No actions are included that formulate strategies for sourcing increased funding, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP.

The National Action Plan does not address disarmament issues or connect the proliferation of weapons with women’s insecurity. Instead, Brazilian NAP showcases the intention of the Government to re-frame women’s role in society so that women see themselves as key participants in the country’s defense sector, rather than addressing intransigent obstacles to women’s participation and rights.

Documents and Further Reading

Brazil National Action Plan 2017-2019 (Translation by LSE WPS NAPs Translation Project)
Building Brazil’s National Action Plan: Lessons Learned and Opportunities (LSE WPS Blog)
Implementing the “Women, Peace and Security” agenda in Brazil (BRICS Policy Center)
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