The first National Action Plan (NAP) of Côte d’Ivoire on UNSCR 1325 (2000) was in place during the period 2008-2012. This was in the middle of a political and military crisis that extended from September 2002 until 2010, and then a subsequent crisis surrounding the 2010 elections until the resolution of the conflict in April 2011. The development of Côte d’Ivoire’s second NAP (2019-2023) was based on the report of evaluation of the first Ivorian NAP, the general observations of the Committee for the elimination of discrimination against women, the National Plan of Development, and other reports regarding the Women, Peace and Security agenda. Mitigating the potential risks of renewed armed conflict and preventing future violence are main priorities for the Ivorian NAP, as well as the need to strengthen the national system for protection against violence.
Côte d’Ivoire reported on the implementation of its NAP in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020).
Côte d’Ivoire gained independence from France in 1960, after decades of colonial rule by the French empire. The most recent armed conflict in the history of Côte d’Ivoire is the civil war, which lasted from 2002 until 2007, resulting in the division of the country into the Muslim rebel-held north and government-controlled Christian south. Following the civil war, Côte d’Ivoire has seen political unrest, election-related violence, resurgent armed conflict, and grave human rights abuses, including the political unrest in 2011. Conflict in Côte d’Ivoire has disproportionately affected women and girls, who represent the majority of victims, internally displaced persons, and refugees. Though women were actively involved in organizing peacebuilding efforts, they were excluded from formal peace negotiation processes. Nevertheless, women played a key role in the post-conflict reconstruction process, including their involvement in the country’s truth and reconciliation efforts.
National Action Plan (2019-2023)
Global Gender Gap Index 2022
Arms Trade Treaty Ratified
Military expenditure (2021)
$604 million USD
Explore Côte d’Ivoire's National Action Plan
The Ministry of Women, the Family and Children was responsible for developing the new NAP, with the help of other partners, such as UN Women and the Canada Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire through the Group of Friends of the Guinean Gulf. The NAP states that this was a participatory and interactive process that gathered together all stakeholders involved in the protection of the rights of women and girls, including public authorities, civil society organizations (CSOs) and technical and financial partners.
The Ministry of Women, the Family and Children is the government entity responsible for the implementation of the Action Plan; such work must be done through the lead of the National Coordinating Committee of the NAP.
The National Coordinating Committee of the NAP includes representatives of the Ministries of Defense, Interior, Justice and Finances, the Technical and Financial Partners, CSOs and other relevant institutions. Among its responsibilities are:
- Coordinating the implementation of the activities listed in the NAP
- Defining the national priorities regarding the NAP
- Examining the reports of activities and monitoring the implementation of the Action Plan.
A Permanent Technical Secretariat will be in charge of the implementation of the NAP, made out of technical personnel exclusively dedicated to this mission. Among its functions are:
- Implement and monitor the activities of the NAP
- Provide technical support to stakeholders
- Elaborate the reports of implemented activities, as established in the NAP
- Prepare the annual plans on the implementation of the NAP
- Support the mobilization of resources.
Monitoring and Evaluation
The Ministry of Women, the Family and Children is also responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of the NAP. This task will be completed through the National Coordinating Committee and the Permanent Technical Secretariat.
According to the Action Plan, civil society will participate in all the steps of the NAP: development, implementation and monitoring and evaluation. The NAP states that due to their experience on the ground, the government considers CSOs to be a key stakeholder when it comes to support and awareness. Specifically, it states that they can boost women’s participation in all levels of conflict prevention and peace consolidation in Côte d’Ivoire, they play a key role in early warning and prevention of violence against women and girls, and their participation is needed for the effective implementation of the NAP.
To ensure such participation, the WPS Platform for CSOs was proposed as a framework for consultation and exchange between the state and civil society. The Coordinating National Committee will establish this platform in line with the National Strategy against Gender-based Violence.
The Second NAP for Côte d’Ivoire is established for the period 2019-2023.
The main objective of the Ivorian Action Plan is to improve the role and the position of women in the peace and security architecture in Côte d’Ivoire through the reinforcement of the mechanisms of promotion and protection dedicated to women and children in periods of conflict and post-conflict.
The specific objectives of the NAP are:
- Reduce the risk of conflict and eliminate violence against women and children in the period of conflict and post-conflict.
- Increase the participation and contribution of women to mechanisms of mediation, peace consolidation, and the post-crisis reforms.
- Efficiently protect women and children against gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual violence during conflict.
- Ensure the effective coordination, financing, dissemination and the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the NAP on UNSCR 1325
Moreover, each specific objective has desired effects, some examples are
1.1 The security and peace keeping forces efficiently prevent sexual violence in conflict and gender-based violence
2.2. The needs of women and girls in terms of reinsertion and reparation are satisfied by the peacekeeping programs.
3.2 Women and girls are protected from sexual and gender-based violence within the communities
Côte d’Ivoire’s Action Plan is structured to tackle the secondary objectives and desired effects through a list of actions that address specific situations, with the purpose of increasing women’s participation in all areas of the security sector, considering their needs and incorporating them in the government strategies. Examples of the actions listed include:
126.96.36.199 Reinforce the operational capacities of the National Committee to Fight against Sexual Violence in Conflict
188.8.131.52 Train women and girls in extremism and radicalization prevention.
184.108.40.206 Evaluate and reinforce the level of integration of a gender perspective in security sector reform programs
220.127.116.11 Implement mechanisms (local and national) for the humanitarian coordination of response to gender-based violence in periods of conflict.
18.104.22.168 Adoption of a General Law on the Elimination of all forms of Gender-Based Violence
The Ivorian NAP has quantitative and qualitative indicators, linked to both the desired effects and the actions enlisted in the document. Indicators on the desired effects include:
1.1 The level of incidents of gender-based violence and sexual violence in conflict in the within the security and peace keeping forces is reduced
1.2 Number and percentage of women and girls involved in the fight against violent extremism and radicalization
2.1 Number and percentage of the women involved in the peacekeeping and peace consolidation mechanisms
2.2. Proportion of objectives targeting the needs of women and girls
3.2 Rate of reduction of the prevalence of GBV incidents, particularly rape.
Examples of indicators regarding activities include
22.214.171.124 Affected resources/ type of activities/ frequence of the reports
126.96.36.199 Number of the women who are trained on extremism and radicalization prevention
188.8.131.52 Evaluation report of the gender perspective in the reform of the security sector program availability.
184.108.40.206 Number of the mechanism created to coordinate the humanitarian response to GBV during conflict
220.127.116.11 Availability of the General Law against GBV
The Permanent Technical Secretariat and the Coordinating National Committee are responsible for NAP monitoring and evaluation.
The everyday monitoring of the members and activities of the NAP will be done by the Permanent Technical Secretariat through the collection of data directly from the ground.
The PTS will also support the matrix for measuring the performance, needed for the elaboration of a detailed plan of monitoring and the production of activity reports each six and twelve months, to examine the progress in the implementation of the NAP. The monitoring will be done based on the indicators defined in the NAP’s Matrix.
The Coordinating Committee will be in charge of the internal evaluations, based on the results presented by the PTS, and will examine all reports of activities, with the goal of making any necessary changes in the strategy.
The NAP details that CFCA 1 963 000 000 is needed for the implementation. The Ivorian government is the main source of financing, but UN Women, PNUD, UNFPA, the Canadian Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire and other partners will also support.
The Ivorian NAP recognizes the key role disarmament plays within the foundational structure of UNSCR 1325 and the need to include a gender perspective in any disarmament program. Furthermore, it acknowledges the role the DDR program implemented in 2011 as a part of the Emergency Presidential Program in Côte d’Ivoire, which helped reinsert former combatants and strengthened the social cohesion, and improved the stabilization and pacification of the country.
Additionally, the 2014 National Strategy for the Fight Against Gender-Based Violence recognizes Security Sector Reform and DDR as a key intervention axis. Nonetheless, the NAP does not have specific actions or objectives regarding disarmament.
The Cote d’Ivoirian NAP’s design and implementation is overseen by the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs. Financial and technical assistance in development was provided by the government of Norway and UNDP, however there was no formal Civil Society engagement or consultation processes throughout the NAP's development.
The Cote d'Ivorian NAP was led by the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs. In addition, the NAP mentions how the Ministries of Planning and Development, Foreign Affairs, Justice and Human Rights, Economy and Finance, Defense, Interior, Solidarity and War Victims, Health and Public Hygiene, National Education and Reconstruction collaborated to develop the NAP.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations such as West Africa Network for Peacebuilding-Cote d’Ivoire are actively involved in supporting national implementation of UNSR1325 and overseeing the implementation of the NAP. A range of new national women’s coalitions have been established to promote and defend women’s role in peace and reconstruction processes since the establishment of the NAP. This includes the Coalition of Women Leaders in Cote d’Ivoire, Organisation of Women for Peace (OFEP) and Organisation of Active Women of Cote d’Ivoire (OFACI).
Cote d'Ivoire's NAP does not specify which institution is responsible for specific actions or priority areas. The section labeled "Institutional Framework for the Implementation of the Action Plan" reiterates what is said for NAP Development.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP defines Civil Society Organizations as participants in the monitoring and evaluating of NAP implementation, and also enables them to seek ad hoc inclusion of new indicators through the National Coordinating Committee.
The NAP designs a "National Coordinating Committee chaired by the Ministry of Family, Planning and Social Affairs" to monitor and evaluate government and civil society players relevant to the action plan each year. Every year, the committee publishes a progress report.
The Cote d'Ivorian NAP is for the period 2008-2012, but does not include specific timeframes for actions. They do, however, include a loose timeframe for monitoring and evaluation (see below).
Cote d'Ivoire's NAP is organized into four "Priority Areas" that mostly follow UNSCR 1325's priorities: The protection of women and girls against sexual violence, including female circumcision, inclusion of gender considerations in development policies and program, the participation of women and men in the reconstruction and national reinsertion processes, and strengthening of the participation of women in the decision-making process.
For each "Priority Area" gives a "strategic result". For example, for "Priority Area 2: Inclusion of gender considerations in development policies and program", they give one "strategic result": Gender inequalities are reduced.
For each "Priority Area" in Cote d'Ivoire's NAP, they provide a series of actions to be implemented. For example, for "Priority Area 3" - "The participation of women and men in the National Reconstruction and Reinsertion Process" - they include nine actions:
The inclusion of gender parity considerations during peace talks and in the reconstruction program
The increase of the role and the contribution of women in peacekeeping operations
The improvement of health and basic education sectors
The improvement of women's access to private investments through credit and procedures facilities
The development of income generating activities
The improvement of access to housing, water and sanitation
Incentives and establishment of conditions for the return of internal displaced persons
The reduction of the HIV/AIDS rate among women
The Cote d'Ivorian NAP includes a set of indicators as "Output Result" for each "Priority Area". For example, under "Priority 1" - "The protection of Women and Girls Against Sexual violence and Female Circumcision" - the following indicators are provided:
• The early warning system is created and is operational
• The psychosocial, medical and legal care organizations are established or strengthened
• The capacities of the justice system, defense and security forces, health and social affairs regarding sexual violence are built
• The victims access to protection mechanisms is effective
• Programs for the increase of grants for school girls are put in place
• Programs for micro credit, income generating activities are designed and implemented
• The knowledge of people about the issues of sexual violence is improved
Monitoring and Evaluation
Cote d'Ivoire's NAP includes a short section entitled "Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism":
"At the national level, a National Coordinating Committee chaired by the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs and gathering government and civil society players in charge of the issue is set up by an order of Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs. The National Coordinating Committee reports to the Government about the status of the action plan. Each year, it publishes a progress report on the action plan and the results achieved."
"For each project, a monitoring and evaluation committee is set up on the proposal of the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs by the ministry in charge of the sector. This committee is made of government bodies and civil society players working in the specified field. Each semester, the committee should produce a report on the activities carried out and the results achieved. An accurate time frame is designed."
In addition, Cote d'Ivoire's NAP follows this by a "Revision of the National Action Plan" section, which states that the action plan is "open-ended" and can be "adapted and completed at any time." They state:
"Proposals for additional measures are directed to the National Committee for the Coordination of the National Action Plan for Resolution 1325/2000 which rules on their acceptances or refusal.
The Ivorian NAP does not include an allocated budget, but has an estimated cost of 3,694,400,00 F.CFA. A ‘Resource Framework’ is included as the appendix, which lists the total annual estimated costs of each specific activity and the Ministry responsible. There is no inclusion of financial accountability mechanisms or time-frames for achieving relevant strategic results.
Cote d'Ivoire's NAP does not include any details regarding disarmament.