Portugal

Portugal adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2019 for the period 2019-2022. The NAP is currently available only in Portuguese. WILPF’s analysis of the NAP will be posted following an English translation. 

Portugal’s third NAP is preceded by two other NAPs, adopted in 2009 and 2014 and implemented for the period 2009-2013 and 2014-2018, respectively. The first NAP approaches the implementation of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda mostly internationally, identifying the goal to “promot[e] the inclusion of the dimension of gender equality at all stages of peacebuilding processes and the promotion of safety” (p. 5). As such, there is a strong emphasis on women’s inclusion in peacekeeping missions and peacebuilding efforts among the NAP’s objectives. The NAP does not have a detailed monitoring and implementation framework, nor does it include an allocated budget. The second NAP was developed through a participatory approach that included a public consultation as well as an independent external evaluation of the country’s first NAP. Nevertheless, the content of the first NAP’s objectives remain mostly unchanged in the second NAP, even though the revised action plan has a more detailed implementation matrix.  

Portugal does not have a recent history of conflict, but plays a role in international peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts. Portugal is a partner of the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies, a multi-stakeholder initiative that aims to mitigate and provide accountability for gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies. 

In 2019, Portugal was among the top 25 arms exporters in the world. 

At the multilateral level, Portugal most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2011-2011, and is currently a candidate for a non-permanent member seat for the period 2027-2028.

CEDAW

1980

Global Gender Gap Index 2020

35 out of 153

Arms Trade Treaty Ratified

2014

Military expenditure (2019)

$4.5 billion USD

Explore Portugal's National Action Plan

  • Actors
  • Timeframe
  • Objectives
  • Action/Activities
  • Indicators
  • M&E
  • Budget
  • Disarmament

NAP Development

The second NAP was developed on the basis of recommendations from an independent external evaluation of the first NAP and from recommendations from a public consultation held on the evaluation of the first NAP.

WILPF does not have a country section in Portugal and therefore was not involved in the development of the NAP.

NGOs and other civil society representatives collaborated with government representatives in the creation of the NAP.

NAP Implementation

The second NAP of Portugal acknowledges the essential role of civil society organisations in the development of policies pertaining to the implementation of UNSCR 1325 as well as by complementing the military, security and civilian personnel in conflict and post-conflict situations and in cases of emergency. The second NAP therefore notes, that is is vital to collaborate with civil society to achieve the objectives set out by the NAP.

Civil society organisations are listed as one of the entities involved with the implementation of several measures corresponding with the 5 strategic goals of the second NAP. The fifth strategic goal explicitly states the ‘promoting the participation of the civil society in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security (2014-2018). Which has the following corresponding measures for implementation

  • To promote meetings with representatives of the civil society for the implementation, follow-up and assessment of the II PNA 1325.
  • To cooperate with civil society organisations in the exchange of expertise within the framework of gender-based issues, in the operational environment and international missions for the maintenance of peace, civil crisis management and emergency management within civil protection.
  • To support cooperation projects promoted by civil society organisations within the intervention scope of this plan.

Civil society organisations are involved with the executing of the measures alongside government bodies.

The second NAP is implemented through 5 strategic areas which have a set list of partnerships consisting of government bodies and civil society actors in implementing the measures corresponding with each strategic goal.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

The Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG) is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of the second NAP. The CIG is supported by a working group which consists of representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of National Defence, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Justice. The working group meets twice a year in restricted format and twice a year in extended format including civil society organisations.

The Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG) is appointed as the coordinator entity of the second NAP by the Council of Ministers. The role of the CIG is to be responsible for the following:

  • Annually preparing the work plan for the execution of the II PNA 1325 according to the planning presented by each ministry involved
  • Supervising and monitoring the entities responsible for the implementation of the measures contained in the II PNA 1325, requesting, if necessary, information on the respective execution process
  • Ensuring the smooth functioning of the working group, which supports the coordinator entity, aiming to guarantee a continuous and effective execution
  • Annually preparing an interim report on the level of execution of the II PNA 1325 measures, also including an assessment of the fulfilment of the annual work plan, and reporting accordingly to the overseeing Government member until March 15 every year

The Ministries also have a share of the responsibility in implementing the NAP which is listed as the following:

  • Submit to the CIG, until January 31, the activity report on the implementation of the II PNA 1325 concerning the previous year, after its validation by the overseeing Government member
  • Submit to the CIG, until the end of the first month after the approval of the II PNA 1325, the planning of the activities to be carried out until 31 December 2014
  • Submit to the CIG, until January 31 of each year, the work plan regarding the implementation of the II PNA 1325, after its validation by the overseeing Government member
  • Collaborate with the CIG in the monitoring and assessment of the processes and the II PNA 1325 implementation results
  • Submit to the CIG, until 15 October 2018, the final report on the execution of the measures under the responsibility of the respective Ministry.

The second NAP states a specific schedule to every measure to be accomplished for every strategic goal. Most of the measures are to be completed annually and others are ongoing for the period of 2015-2018, such as the measure pertaining to the first strategic goal being ‘To ensure access to psychological support for the staff and the respective families before, during and after their participation in peace and technical and military cooperation missions’.

The Portuguese NAP outlines five strategic objectives:

  • Encouraging the participation of women in the processes of promotion and maintenance of peace and security
  • Ensuring training for the people involved in processes for the promotion and maintenance of peace and security
  • Promoting the goals of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) in the external action of Portugal
  • Deepening and dissemination of knowledge about the «women, peace and security» theme, and raising awareness among decision-making stakeholders and the community
  • Promoting the participation of the civil society in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security (2014-2018)

Each of the strategic goals has a list of measures, for instance the first of the measures corresponding to the first strategic goal is ‘to promote the increase of women serving in the military and security forces’ as well as responsible entities for implementation and a list of entities involved in the execution. In this case, the Ministry of National Defence. and Ministry of Internal Affairs. and Presidency of the Council of Ministers, respectively.

For each specific objective, Portugal's second NAP states a measure to be accomplished, a corresponding goal and an expected outcome.

For example, for objective of 1 ‘ Ensuring women’s participation in international missions’ pertaining to the first strategic goal, there is the following measures:

  • To promote the increase of women serving in the military and security forces.
  • To promote the increase of women’s participation in international missions for the promotion and maintenance of peace and security, for humanitarian aid and for crisis management.
  • To regularly publish the vacant positions in international bodies, in order to encourage the appointment of more women to key positions, decision-making and other positions, in the international bodies that support the promotion of peace and security.
  • To promote the appointment of women to EU, OSCE and CPLP election observation missions.
  • To promote the integration of issues regarding gender equality and all forms of violence against women, young women and girls into the deployed forces, including in conflict and post-conflict settings, and into international missions for the maintenance of peace and security
  • To ensure access to psychological support for the staff and the respective families before, during and after their participation in peace and technical and military cooperation missions.

Each specific objective in Portugal's NAP has a set of indicators. For example, for Objective One's second specific measure - "To promote the increase of women’s participation in international missions for the promotion and maintenance of peace and security, for humanitarian aid and for crisis management there is the following goal stated

  • Creating conditions to achieve a more equal participation of women and men in international missions for the promotion and maintenance of peace.

The indicators for this goal are listed as

  • Number of missions conducted each year.
  • Number of men and women participating in international missions and respective tasks.

The Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG) is appointed as the coordinator entity of the second NAP by the Council of Ministers and is responsible for the monitoring of the NAP supported by a working group made up of representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of National Defence, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Justice. The second NAP is also subject to an independent external evaluation at the end of its term.

There is no allocated or estimated budget in the Portuguese NAP.

The second Portuguese NAP does not mention disarmament.

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