Sudan adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in March 2020 for the period 2020-2022. Its implementation is a joint initiative between the Ministry of Labor and Social Development with the Geneva Institute for Human Rights – Sudan Office, and is funded by the Norwegian Embassy in Khartoum. The NAP has three overarching goals: actively involving women in peace-building, peacekeeping, peace negotiations and decision-making processes at all levels, and in relief, reconstruction and development; promoting the recognition of women’s rights before, during and post armed conflict; ensuring the protection of women against any form of gender-based violence, and putting an end to impunity. The NAP is organized into the four pillars of the WPS Agenda: participation, prevention, protection, and relief and recovery.
Sudan has experienced three decades of brutal dictatorship, under which human rights violations and systematic violence against women were widespread and persisting. Following the December Revolution and months of political struggle, a constitution was signed in August 2019 and a transitional government formed shortly after in September. Sudan has also experienced long episodes of conflict, including a devastating civil war between the north and south which led to the secession of South Sudan, and violence in Darfur. This has led to mass internal displacement in areas such as Khartoum, Darfur, and Blue Nile, a large proportion of which are women and children.
Conflict has also played a critical role in rising violence against women, including sexual violence in conflict zones. Previous peace agreements in Sudan have addressed gender issues to varying degrees, but women remained underrepresented in the negotiation processes, despite their active participation in resistance and revolution. However, unlike previous political frameworks governing the peace processes, the 2019 Constitutional Document and the Juba Peace Document 2019 have made explicit women, peace and security commitments.
At the multilateral level, Sudan has not served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since the period 1972-1973, prior to the secession of South Sudan.