Romania adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014 for the period 2014-2024. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Defense. The NAP does not identify civil society inclusion in the NAP development process. Romania’s NAP contextualizes the WPS agenda by providing an overview of legislative landmarks pertaining to the advancement of women’s rights at the domestic level. The NAP focuses heavily on increasing the number of women within the military, stressing the importance of women’s participation in the defense sector. The NAP acknowledges that these steps are insufficient without gender equality, stating that women are still underrepresented in leadership positions. Nevertheless, the action plan does not include objectives to achieve gender equality at the societal level, and is quite limited in its interpretation of the WPS Agenda by focusing on the military alone. Furthermore, the NAP does not include an allocated budget. 

Romania transitioned into a democratic regime in 1989, after an extensive period under communist rule. Romania does not have a recent history of armed conflict. However, the country has had a tense relationship with its ethnic Hungarian population, which resulted in violent clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Târgu Mureș in 1990. A former member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program, Romania officially joined NATO in 2004. 

At the multilateral level, Romania most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2004-2005.

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