Kenya launched its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2020 for the period 2020-2024. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Public Service and Gender and the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government. The NAP indicates and acknowledges the involvement of civil society organizations in the NAP development process, but does not specify which civil society actors were a part of the process. The NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS agenda both domestically and internationally, and has four overarching objectives that align with the key pillars of the UNSCR 1325: participation; prevention; protection; and relief and recovery. The NAP addresses disarmament only briefly in the relief and recovery pillar, and through a narrow framework, to incorporate a gender-sensitive design into all disarmament, demobilization, and rehabilitation (DDR) efforts. While the NAP does have a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework, it does not include an allocated budget, instead holding various ministries and bodies at the national and county levels to allocate a part of their budget for the assigned activities.
Kenya’s second NAP is preceded by one other NAP, adopted in 2016 and implemented for the period 2016-2018. The NAP compiles its objectives under four thematic pillars that align with the framework of Resolution 1325: participation and promotion; prevention; protection; relief and recovery. In 2019, Kenya carried out a review of their first NAP to assess the level of implementation, and the findings and recommendations of the review was utilized to inform the development of the second NAP. Specifically, the particular recommendations used for the development of the NAP included the following: deepen the institutionalization of the revised NAP; map out actors implementing the women, peace, and security agenda at all levels; strengthen the awareness and implementation of the NAP at the local level; and develop an effective monitoring and accountability system. Despite the revisions, the second NAP, similar to its predecessor, does not address disarmament beyond the narrow framework of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) efforts.
Kenya gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1963, after decades of colonial rule by the British empire. The most recent armed conflict in Kenya’s history took place after the presidential elections of 2007 and lasted until 2008. During this period of civil and political unrest, over 1,100 people were killed, more than 600,000 people displaced, and at least 900 cases of sexual violence were recorded. Survivors of sexual violence suffered significant physical and psychological trauma and socioeconomic hardship, worsened by the Kenyan government’s failure to provide measures such as medical care and psychosocial support. The conflict drew national and international attention and prompted the establishment of a Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC). More recently, Kenya has been experiencing further political instability as a result of Al Qaeda and Al Shabaab’s operations within Kenya’s boundaries and in neighbouring Somalia. Women’s security is greatly affected by these attacks by extremist groups alongside the proliferation of small arms and light weapons.