Brazil adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2017, for the period 2017-2019, and was subsequently renewed for four years. The NAP was developed by an interministerial working group, which consisted of the Ministries Foreign Affairs; Defense; Justice; Public Security; and Human Rights, with a participatory approach that included consultations with civil society organizations. The NAP identifies four major goals that aim to increase the participation of women in international peace and security; prevent gender-based violence and promote the human rights of all women and girls before, during, and after conflict; strengthen humanitarian actions through a gender-sensitive framework; and expand awareness of the WPS agenda within Brazil. While each objective has corresponding actions, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
Brazil reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, the country provided the following updates:
- Considering that the National Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security will soon reach its term, the review process has already begun. As in the preparation of the text of the NPA, the review process is led by the Inter‐ministerial Working Group, coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and encompassing the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Justice and Public Safety, Ministry of Women, Family and Human Rights, UN‐Women and Instituto Igarapé as a representative of civil society.
- The review process began in 1 November 2018, in Brasília, with a seminar entitled “National Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security: implementation and review”. This event, organized in partnership with the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation (FUNAG), included representatives from governmental agencies, military officials, foreign governments and civil society. The debates provided conclusions and suggestions that inform the efforts to review the NPA. Among those, the importance of effective and continuous monitoring mechanisms on national plans was particularly highlighted. There has also been opinions in support of broadening the scope of participation and capacity training of non‐military women (diplomats, police officers and civilians) in peacekeeping operations, special political missions, negotiations on peace and security issues and mediation.
Brazil does not have a history of recent armed conflict, but went through a period of military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985. To this date, impunity persists for human rights violations by military officers, with a 1979 amnesty law, which was upheld in 2010 by the country’s supreme court, protecting perpetrators. Brazil experiences deep socioeconomic inequalities, with protests erupting over public funds spent for the World Cup in 2014 as well as the mistreatment of marginalized residents and laborers.
Brazil has a vibrant feminist movement, and women across the country are working to protect and promote women’s human rights, including through the participation of women’s civil society organizations in institutions such as the National Council on Women’s Rights.
In 2019, Brazil was among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure as well as being among the top 25 arms exporters in the world.
At the multilateral level, Brazil most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2010-2011.