Norway adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2019 for the period 2019-2022. The NAP was developed by an Inter-Ministerial Working Group, which consisted of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs; Defense; International Development; Justice, Security, and Immigration; and Children and Equality. The NAP indicates civil society involvement in the NAP development, implementation, and monitoring process. Norway’s NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS Agenda both domestically and internationally, and outlines four main objectives towards the implementation of UNSCR 1325: peace and reconciliation processes; implementation of peace agreements; operations and missions; and humanitarian efforts. The NAP addresses conflict prevention and disarmament by mentioning the goal to support civil society initiatives and women’s organizations in conflict prevention as well as ensuring a gender perspective in humanitarian disarmament and arms control, but does not touch upon root cause analysis. Norway’s NAP promotes an integrated agenda by demonstrating the linkages between the WPS Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The NAP outlines a monitoring and evaluation framework that consists of outcomes and indicators. The NAP does not include an allocated budget, but indicates that all WPS efforts will be funded through “several budget lines and as part of larger initiatives” (p. 59).
Norway’s fourth NAP is preceded by three other NAPs, adopted in 2006, 2011, and 2015 and implemented for the period 2006-2011; 2011-2015; and 2015-2018, respectively. While all four NAPs are structurally similar, subsequent NAPs are more detailed and substantive in terms of identified activities and Norway’s approach to WPS implementation. Norway’s second NAP commits to improving the implementation of Resolution 1325 by prioritizing results and accountability. Different from the first two NAPs, Norway’s third NAP identifies priority countries (Afghanistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Palestine and South Sudan) in which to support the implementation of WPS commitments. The focus on priority countries continues in the fourth NAP as well, with the addition of Nigeria to the list as a priority country. As a divergence from all previous NAPs, Norway’s fourth NAP has a section devoted specifically to women, gender, and violent extremism, as well as a more substantive focus on implementing the WPS agenda domestically, through its focus on women asylum seekers, radicalization, and violence against women in Norway.
Norway’s fourth NAP provides a strong emphasis on the need for structural change that enables women’s meaningful participation, including through addressing the situation of women human rights defenders and refugees. It also provides a strong emphasis on the gender perspective in security, which the government sees as looking in depth into how societal institutions, structures and systems, programmes, reforms and measures affect women’s and men’s, girls’ and boys’ power and resource situation, and their needs and priorities. Furthermore, the NAP supports civil society both as a partner and an actor for change. However, while embracing a gender-sensitive perspective overall, the NAP has a strong focus on increasing the number of women in the military, including through its Long-Term Plan for the Armed Forces (2017-2020).
Norway reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, Norway addressed updates regarding strategic efforts to ensure women’s participation in peace processes; gender-sensitive implementation of peace agreements; women mediators; sexual violence in conflict; and violent extremism.
Norway does not have a history of recent armed conflict, but is involved in overseas military operations, international peacekeeping, and humanitarian missions. Norway is a major contributor to humanitarian aid, including being a contributing donor to the Women’s Peace and Humanitarian Fund, a global partnership that works to empower women in conflict zones and humanitarian crises. Norway is also a partner of the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies, a multi-stakeholder initiative that aims to mitigate and provide accountability for gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies. In 2019, Norway was UN Women’s fourth-largest regular resources contributor with USD 11.7 million and the third-largest total government contributor with USD 31.25 million. Norway is also a member of the Nordic Women Mediators Network, which was launched in 2015.
At the multilateral level, Norway currently serves as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2021-2022.