Mali adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2019 for the period 2019-2023. The NAP’s theory of change (pgs. 22-23) centers women’s participation in peacebuilding, reconciliation processes, and in post-conflict governance and identifies concrete outcomes and associated actions.Mali’s third NAP builds on lessons learned from the previous plan, consultations at all levels, and research on Women, Peace and Security agenda implementation. It has a number of key changes from the previous plan (pgs. 20-21), which include: Updated contextual analysis; Alignment with international, regional, and national instruments; Two results frameworks (a strategic framework and an operational plan); Longer duration; Ownership and broad leadership; Improved coordination, monitoring, and budgetary mechanism; and Localization.
The 2019-2023 NAP includes emerging issues including radicalization and violent extremism; displacement; the role of men in advancing gender equality, and climate change. The NAP contains a situational analysis of the previous NAPs, and reports on progress from the 2015-2017 NAP in order to provide context for the new plan. The NAP includes an operational plan, and notes that details are subject to change; the NAP will be updated yearly and as required (pg. 6). There is a national budget for implementation, which is supplemented by another fund to finance stakeholder implementation.
Mali’s third NAP is preceded by two other NAPs, adopted in 2012 and 2015 and implemented for the period 2012-2014 and 2015-2017, respectively.
Mali reported on the implementation of its NAP, as well as WPS commitments, in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, Mali indicated that the priorities of the third NAP include: the prevention of conflicts and gender-based violence, protection and rehabilitation of victims, participation and representation of women in decision-making bodies, promotion of gender and women’s empowerment, and coordination, monitoring, and evaluation (p. 35). Additionally, Mali reported that there is low representation of women in the monitoring of the peace, security and reconciliation process. The average representation of women in the implementation mechanisms of the peace agreement is around 3% (p. 33).
Mali gained independence from France in 1960, after decades of colonial rule by the French Empire. Mali has experienced ongoing political instability since its independence, with multiple military coups in 1968, 1991, 2012, and 2020, including extended rule by a military junta from 1969 until 1979. Furthermore, Mali experienced two armed conflicts with Burkina Faso, resulting from a recurring border dispute in 1974-1975 and 1985. Most recently, in 2012, Mali experienced conflict with Islamic and Tuareg insurgent groups, leading to instability in the northern parts of the country. A UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA, has been active in Mali since 2013.
At the multilateral level, Mali most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2001-2002.