Italy adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2016 for the period 2016-2019. The NAP was developed by the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Human Rights (CIDU) with the input of a variety of stakeholders, including civil society. The NAP approaches the implementation of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda both domestically and internationally, with indicators focused on strengthening the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda (WPS) both inside the country, as well as in conflict and post-conflict situations. The NAP identifies seven overarching objectives, including increasing women’s participation in peacebuilding and decision-making processes and promoting gender-sensitive peace operations. Each objective has corresponding actions and indicators, but the NAP does not have an allocated budget.  

Italy’s third NAP is preceded by two other NAPs, adopted in 2010 and 2014, and implemented for the period 2010-2013 and 2014-2016, respectively. All three NAPs identify the following among their primary goals: increasing the number of women in the military; promoting a gender perspective in peace operations, including training on Resolution 1325; protecting the rights of women, children, and vulnerable groups in conflict and post-conflict zones; strengthening the role of women in peace processes; and increasing civil society participation in implementing Resolution 1325. The NAPs approach the implementation of the WPS agenda both domestically and internationally, with preventing human trafficking and protecting refugees and asylum seekers as major areas of concern at the domestic level. 

Italy does not have a history of recent armed conflict, but is a contributor to peacekeeping and military operations. In 2019, Italy was also among the top 10 arms exporters in the world. Specifically, between 2015 and 2018, Italy made more than 700 million in euros through arms exports to Saudi Arabia. The Italian government stopped arms exports to Saudia Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, as a result of concerted civil society efforts that exposed the human rights violations during the war in Yemen. 

In 2019, Italy adopted a new law with extended measures to prevent gender-based violence. Despite this positive development for human rights, rights violations continue for migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers, including through anti-immigration policies and rhetoric. 

At the multilateral level, Italy most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for a one-year term in 2017, splitting the ordinarily two-year term with the Netherlands due to a deadlocked election result. 

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