Indonesia launched its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014 for the period 2014-2019. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of People’s Welfare. While the NAP does not indicate civil society involvement, several civil society organizations were involved in the drafting of the NAP as well as being involved in its implementation. The NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS agenda mostly domestically, with the goal to protect and empower women and children during conflicts. The NAP has three overarching sections, which focus on preventive programs; resolution programs; and empowerment and participation programs. Each of these sections have specific actions and indicators, but the monitoring and evaluation framework solely consists of meetings to evaluate progress on actions identified in the NAP. Furthermore, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
The most recent armed conflict in Indonesia’s history is the Aceh conflict, which took place between 1976 and 2005 between the Indonesian government and the pro-independence Free Aceh Movement (known as Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or GAM), which demanded the independence of the Aceh region from Indonesia. The conflict concluded with a peace agreement signed in 2005, but the agreement did not include gender-sensitive provisions. Additionally, the peace agreement called for the establishment of a truth and reconciliation commission, which held its first public hearing in 2018. Previously, Indonesia occupied Timor-Leste in 1975, with ongoing presence in the country until 2002, when a referendum in Timor-Leste resulted in favor of independence.