Georgia adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2018 for the period 2018-2020. The NAP was developed by the Inter-Agency Commission on Gender Equality, Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (hereinafter the Commission), which was formed as a result of Georgia’s second NAP. The Commission developed the NAP through a participatory process, in partnership with the Thematic Consultative Working Group, composed of representatives from municipalities, civil society, and international organizations. The NAP interprets the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda both domestically and internationally, focusing on conflict-affected areas, internally displaced persons, and occupied territories within Georgia as well as on mainstreaming the WPS agenda in its international peacekeeping and diplomatic activities. The NAP has four priority areas, aligned with the primary pillars of UNSCR 1325: participation; prevention; protection; and monitoring. These thematic priority areas have corresponding actions and indicators; nevertheless, the monitoring and evaluation framework is broad, rather than being specific, consisting of regular evaluations to assess progress. The NAP does not have an allocated budget.
Georgia’s third NAP is preceded by two other NAPs, adopted in 2012 and 2016 and implemented for the period of 2012-2015 and 2016-2017, respectively. Georgia’s first NAP forms part of broader national efforts to mainstream gender and was developed following the adoption of the Law on Gender Equality in 2010, and the establishment of the Council for Gender Equality. Working at the national level to the grassroots level and in cooperation with international donors and UN agencies, women’s organizations have been instrumental in the development and implementation of the NAP in Georgia. The country’s three NAPs are similar in structure and level of detail, with each NAP consisting solely of an implementation matrix that includes goals, outputs, indicators, responsible party, and timeline. The second and third NAPs also have a preface that provides a brief overview of the implementation of previous NAPs as well as participatory drafting processes of NAPs.
Georgia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The country has been experiencing ethnic tension since its founding, including the Abkhazia War (1992-1993) and the Russo-Georgian War (2008), and involving separatist movements in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which have become breakaway regions. Despite the fact that women have been mostly excluded from peace processes involving these conflicts, they have continued to demand a seat at the peace table as well as carrying out work with women impacted by conflicts on the ground, including internally displaced women and girls. In 2008, a group of women founded the Movement of Women for Peace and Security, with the goal to increase women’s participation in peacebuilding and decision-making processes. Nevertheless, women human rights defenders continue to carry out their work under increasingly precarious conditions in Georgia.