Denmark adopted its most recent National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014 for the period 2014-2019. The NAP was developed by an Inter-Ministerial Working Group, which consisted of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Justice. The NAP indicates civil society involvement in the NAP implementation process, but does not specify which civil society actors will be involved. Denmark’s NAP approaches the implementation of the WPS Agenda mostly internationally, and outlines several main objectives towards the implementation of Resolution 1325 as it pertains to the actions of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Justice. The NAP addresses conflict prevention and root cause analysis by mentioning Denmark’s commitment to support the full and equal participation of women in conflict prevention as well as supporting the work of the United Nations Development Program’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, but does not touch upon disarmament. The NAP outlines a monitoring and evaluation framework that consists of action items and corresponding indicators. Nevertheless, the NAP does not include an allocated budget.
Denmark’s third NAP is preceded by two other NAPs, adopted in 2005 and 2008 and implemented for the period 2005-2007 and 2008-2013, respectively. Denmark’s second and third NAPs are significantly longer and more substantive than its first NAP. Furthermore, both the second and third NAPs have standalone sections dedicated to providing an overview of the “lessons learned” from the implementation of the previous NAPs. While the first NAP does not specifically identify actors involved in the development, implementation, and monitoring of the NAP, the second NAP places particular importance on the role of civil society and nongovernmental organizations in the implementation of the NAP. In particular, the NAP states that “broad national ownership of the revised NAP has been achieved through a substantial consultative process” (p. 33). Furthermore, the third NAP identifies working with women’s organizations “to ensure women’s representation in (i) peace and state building processes at community, regional and national levels and (ii) political, democracy and civil society processes and institutions” (p. 11) as a primary goal.
Despite these positive elements, there are two major shortcomings of the NAPs. First, they still mostly interpret the implementation of the WPS agenda in an international way. When WPS implementation is approached domestically, it is through the narrow objective of increasing the number of women in the military, police, or security forces, including in peacekeeping missions. Second, there is a lack of attention given to disarmament. In the second NAP, disarmament is only addressed through the framework of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) efforts, while the third NAP does not even mention disarmament and arms control among its objectives.
Denmark reported on the implementation of its NAP in its national reporting for Beijing+25 and in preparation for CSW64 (2020). Specifically, Denmark stated that the country is in the process of evaluating its third NAP, with the goal to incorporate the feedback into developing a revised NAP.
Denmark does not have a history of recent armed conflict, but is involved in overseas military operations, international peacekeeping, and humanitarian missions. In 2019, Denmark extended the suspension of its arms exports to include the United Arab Emirates, in addition to Saudi Arabia.
Denmark is a major contributor to humanitarian aid, with Danish NGOs playing an active mission in the country’s humanitarian assistance framework. Denmark is a member of the Nordic Women Mediators Network, which was launched in 2015. Denmark is also a partner of the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies, a multi-stakeholder initiative that aims to mitigate and provide accountability for gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies.
At the multilateral level, Denmark most recently served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2005-2006.